Walter O. Krawec


I am an Associate Professor of Computer Science at the University of Connecticut. My primary research interests are in quantum cryptography and quantum information theory. I am very interested in studying the quantum resources required to gain an advantage over a classical protocol in cryptographic applications. I am also interested in studying entropic uncertainty relations, and their applications to quantum cryptography.

I am always happy to hear from motivated students at all levels looking to get involved in research. If you are interested, please feel free to contact me.


Last Update: January 30, 2024


Submitted (under review)

H. Iqbal and W.O. Krawec. New Security Proof of a Restricted High-Dimensional QKD Protocol. pre-print available online: arXiv:2307.09560

M. Bae, N. Panigrahy, P. Dhara, W.O. Krawec, A. Russell, D. Towsley, and B. Wang. Blockwise Key Distillation in Satellite-based Quantum Key Distribution. pre-print available online: arXiv:2307.04300

O. Amer, W.O. Krawec, V.U. Manfredi, and B. Wang. Dynamic Routing for Quantum Key Distribution Networks. pre-print available online: arXiv:2212.03144


Refereed Papers


W.O Krawec. Entropic Uncertainty for Biased Measurements. To appear: Proc. IEEE QCE 2023. pre-print available online: arXiv:2305.09753

J. Guskind and W.O Krawec. Semi-Quantum Random Number Generation. To appear: Proc. IEEE QCE 2023. pre-print available online: arXiv:2210.16427

W.O Krawec, R. Liss, T. Mor. Security Proof Against Collective Attacks for an Experimentally Feasible Semi-Quantum Key Distribution Protocol. To appear: IEEE Transactions on Quantum Engineering. pre-print available online: arXiv:2012.02127

W. O. Krawec. Improving Bit Generation Rates for Quantum Random Number Generators. To appear: Proc. SPIE Quantum Information Science, Sensing, and Computation.



W. O. Krawec. Security of a High Dimensional Two-Way Quantum Key Distribution Protocol. Advanced Quantum Technologies, vol. 5 (10), pp. 2200024. pre-print available online: arXiv:2203.02989

O. Amer, W. O. Krawec, and V. Garg. A Standardized Design for Sifting in Quantum Key Distribution Software. To appear: IEEE Globecom Workshop on 6G-Quantum Communication Networks.

S. Mutreja and W.O. Krawec. Improved Semi-Quantum Key Distribution with Two Almost-Classical Users. Quantum Information Processing, vol. 21 (9), pp. 319. pre-print available online: arXiv:2203.10567

Z. Tang, P. Zhang, W. O. Krawec. Enabling Resilient Quantum-Secured Microgrids through Software-Defined Networking. IEEE Transactions on Quantum Engineering, vol. 3, pp. 1-11. 2022

F. Massa, P. Yadav, A. Moqanaki, W. O. Krawec, P. Mateus, N. Paunkovic, A. Souto, and P. Walther. Experimental Quantum Cryptography With Classical Users. Quantum. Volume 6, pp. 819. pre-print available online: arXiv:1908.01780

J. Guskind and W.O. Krawec. Mediated Semi-Quantum Key Distribution with Improved Efficiency. Quantum Science and Technology. Volume 7(3) 035019. pre-print available online: arXiv:2111.01627

O. Amer and W.O. Krawec. High-Dimensional Quantum Conference Key Agreement. Proc. IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT), 2022. pp. 1874-1879. pre-print available online: arXiv:2202.00140

Z. Tang, P. Zhang, W. O. Krawec, and L. Wang. Quantum Networks for Resilient Power Grids: Theory and Simulated Evaluation. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 38 (2), pp. 1189-1204. 2022

W. O. Krawec. Quantum Random Number Generation with Practical Device Imperfections. Proc. SPIE Quantum Information Science, Sensing, and Computation XIV (12093) pp. 44-52. 2022

K. Yao, W.O. Krawec., and J. Zhu. Quantum Sampling for Finite Key Rates in High Dimensional Quantum Cryptography. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 68 (5) 2022, pp 3144-3163. pre-print available online: arXiv:2012.04151



H. Iqbal and W.O. Krawec. Analysis of a High-Dimensional Extended B92 Protocol. Quantum Information Processing, 20 (344). 2021 pre-print available online: arXiv:2106.11460

M. Bae and W.O. Krawec. Source Independent Quantum Walk Random Number Generation. Proc. IEEE Information Theory Workshop (ITW) 2021 pp 1-6. Pre-print available online: arXiv:2102.02252

O. Amer, V. Garg, and W.O. Krawec. An Introduction to Practical Quantum Key Distribution. IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine 36 (3), 30-55. 2021 (PDF)

Z. Tang, P. Zhang, and W. O. Krawec. A Quantum Leap in Microgrids Security: The Prospects of Quantum-Secure Microgrids. IEEE Electrification Magazine, vol. 9 (1), pp. 66-73, 2021



O. Amer, W.O. Krawec., and B. Wang. Efficient Routing for Quantum Key Distribution Networks. Proc. IEEE International Conference on Quantum Computing and Engineering (QCE), pp. 137-147. 2020. pre-print available online: arXiv:2005.12404

H. Iqbal and W.O. Krawec. High-Dimensional Semi-Quantum Cryptography. IEEE Transactions on Quantum Engineering, vol. 1, pp. 1-17, 2020. pre-print available online: arXiv:1907.11340

S. Han, W.O. Krawec, and F. Miao. A Game Theoretic Security Framework for Quantum Cryptography: Performance Analysis and Application. Quantum Information Processing 19, 349 (2020). pre-print available online: (PDF)

Z. Tang, P. Zhang, W. O. Krawec and Z. Jiang, Programmable Quantum Networked Microgrids. IEEE Transactions on Quantum Engineering, vol. 1, pp. 1-13, 2020.

Z Tang, Y Qin, Z Jiang, W.O. Krawec, P Zhang. Quantum-Secure Microgrid. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 36 (2), pp. 1250-1263, 2020. pre-print available online: arXiv:2001.02301

O. Amer and W.O. Krawec. Finite Key Analysis of the Extended B92 Protocol. Proc. IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT), 2020, pp. 1944-1948. pre-print available online: arXiv:2001.05940

W. O. Krawec. A New High-Dimensional Quantum Entropic Uncertainty Relation with Applications. Proc. IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT), 2020, pp. 1978-1983. pre-print available online: arXiv:2005.04773

W.O. Krawec and S.A. Markelon. A Semi-Quantum Extended B92 Protocol and its Analysis. Proc. SPIE 11391, Quantum Information Science, Sensing, and Computation XII, 113910G (24 April 2020)

H. Iqbal and W.O. Krawec. Semi-Quantum Cryptography. Quantum Information Processing (2020) 19 (3), 97. pre-print available online: arXiv:1910.05368

Z. Tang, Y. Qin, Z. Jiang, W. O. Krawec, P. Zhang. Quantum-Secure Networked Microgrids. Proc. IEEE PES General Meeting, Aug. 2020



W. O. Krawec. Quantum Sampling and Entropic Uncertainty. Quantum Information Processing (2019) 18 (12), 368. pre-print available online: arXiv:1804.08788

W. O. Krawec. Multi-Mediated Semi-Quantum Key Distribution. IEEE Globecom QCIT Workshop (GC Wkshps). 2019, pp. 1-6. (PDF)

O. Amer and W.O. Krawec. Semi-Quantum Key Distribution with High Quantum Noise Tolerance. Physical Review A 100 (2) 022319. pre-print available online: arXiv:1812.04144

A. Gagliano, W.O. Krawec, and H. Iqbal. From Classical to Semi-Quantum Secure Communication. Proc. IEEE ISIT 2019, Paris France, pages 1707-1711. pre-print available online: arXiv:1901.01611

W.O. Krawec, S. Picek, and D. Jakobovic. Evolutionary Algorithms for the Design of Quantum Protocols. In Applications of Evolutionary Computation (EvoApplications) 2019. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 11454, Springer.



C. Vlachou, W.O. Krawec, P. Mateus, N. Paunkovic, and A. Souto. Quantum Key Distribution with Quantum Walks. Quantum Information Processing (2018) 17:288. Pre-print available online: arXiv:1710.07979

W.O. Krawec and F. Miao. Game Theoretic Security Framework for Quantum Key Distribution. International Conference on Decision and Game Theory for Security. Springer, 2018. pp. 38-58. (PDF | Slides)

W.O. Krawec and E. Geiss. Semi-Quantum Key Distribution with Limited Measurement Capabilities Proc. International Symposium on Information Theory and Its Applications (ISITA), Singapore, 2018, pp. 462-466 pre-print available online: arXiv:1710.05076 | Slides

W. O. Krawec. Key-Rate Bound of a Semi-Quantum Protocol Using an Entropic Uncertainty Relation. Proc. IEEE ISIT 2018, Vail CO, pages 2669-2673. pre-print available online: arXiv:1801.00745 | (Slides)

W.O. Krawec and S.A. Markelon. Genetic Algorithm to Study Practical Quantum Adversaries. Proc. ACM GECCO (2018), Kyoto Japan, pages 1270-1277. (Slides)

W. O. Krawec. Practical Security of Semi-Quantum Key Distribution. SPIE Defense and Commercial Sensing 2018, Orlando FL. (PDF)



W.O. Krawec, M. Nelson, and E. Geiss. Automatic Generation of Optimal Quantum Key Distribution Protocols. Proc. ACM GECCO 2017, pages 1153-1160. (PDF | Slides)

W. O. Krawec. Quantum Key Distribution with Mismatched Measurements over Arbitrary Channels. Quantum Information and Computation. Vol. 17, No. 3 and 4, pages 209-241 (2017). pre-print available online: arXiv:1608:07728



W. O. Krawec. An Improved Asymptotic Key Rate Bound for a Mediated Semi-Quantum Key Distribution Protocol. Quantum Information and Computation. Vol 16, No. 9 and 10, pages 813-834. (2016). pre-print available online: arXiv:1509.04797

W. O. Krawec. Asymptotic Analysis of a Three State Quantum Cryptographic Protocol. Proc. IEEE ISIT 2016 (Barcelona). Pages 2489-2493. pre-print available online: arXiv:1601.00185 | (Slides)

W. O. Krawec. A Genetic Algorithm to Analyze the Security of Quantum Cryptographic Protocols. Proc. IEEE CEC 2016 (Vancouver, Canada). Pages 2098-2105. (Slides)

W. O. Krawec. Security of a Semi-Quantum Protocol Where Reflections Contribute to the Secret Key Quantum Information Processing, 15 (5), 2067-2090 (2016). pre-print available online: arXiv:1510.07181



W. O. Krawec. Security Proof of a Semi-Quantum Key Distribution Protocol. Proc. IEEE ISIT 2015 (Hong Kong). Pages 686-690. pre-print available online: arXiv:1412.0282

W. O. Krawec. Mediated Semi-Quantum Key Distribution. Physical Review A 91 032323. (2015) pre-print available online: arXiv:1411.6024

W. O. Krawec. History Dependent Quantum Walk on the Cycle with an Unbalanced Coin. Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications 428, pages 319-331. (2015). pre-print available online: arXiv:1411.6298

W. O. Krawec. n-Player Impartial Combinatorial Games with Random Players. Theoretical Computer Science 569, pages 1-12 (2015)



W. O. Krawec. Restricted Attacks on Semi-Quantum Key Distribution Protocols. Quantum Information Processing: 13(11), pages 2417-2436 (2014). (PDF)


W. O. Krawec. On the Application of Quantum Decision Theory to Artificial Life. Proc. IEEE CEC 2013, pages 3323-3330.W. O. Krawec. Regarding Modular Multiplicative Graphs. Graph Theory Notes of NY LXIV, pages 45-48, May 2013.



W. O. Krawec. On the Emergent Behaviors of a Robot Controlled by a Real-Time Evolving Neural Network. Proc. of Artificial Life 13, pages 364-371, July 2012.

W. O. Krawec. Modular Multiplicative Graphs. Ars Combinatoria

W. O. Krawec. Analyzing n-Player Impartial Games. International Journal of Game Theory: Volume 41, Issue 2, pages 345-367. (2012)


Posters and Poster Papers

A. Harkness, W. O. Krawec, and B. Wang Security of Partially Corrupted Repeater Chains. QCrypt 2023

H. Iqbal and W. O. Krawec. Analysis of a High-dimensional Restricted Quantum Key Distribution Protocol. QCrypt 2023

O. Amer, K. Freyberg, V. Garg, and W.O. Krawec. A Modular Quantum Key Distribution Software Stack for Rapid Experimental Prototyping. IEEE International Conference on Quantum Computing and Engineering (QCE), 2021, pp. 467-468.

F. Massa, P. Yadav, A. Moqanaki, W. O. Krawec, P. Mateus, N. Paunkovic, A. Souto, P. Walther. Experimental semi-quantum key distribution with classical users QCrypt 2020, Virtual.

W. O. Krawec. Quantum Sampling and Entropic Uncertainty, with Applications QCrypt 2019, Montreal Canada.

C. Vlachou, W.O. Krawec, P. Mateus, N. Paunkovic and A. Souto Quantum Walks and Quantum Key Distribution QCrypt 2019, Montreal Canada.

W.O. Krawec and S.A. Markelon. Discovery of Robust Protocols for Secure Quantum Cryptography. Proc. GECCO Comp. 2019, pages 379-380.

W. O. Krawec. Mismatched Measurements and Quantum Key Distribution. QCrypt 2016, Washington DC. (PDF)

W. O. Krawec. Using Evolutionary Techniques to Analyze the Security of Quantum Key Distribution Protocols. Proc. GECCO Comp. 2014, pages 171-172.

W. O. Krawec. Minimal Variable Quantum Decision Makers for Robotic Control. Proc. GECCO Comp. 2014, pages 33-34.

W. O. Krawec. An Algorithm for Evolving Multiple Quantum Operators for Arbitrary Quantum Computational Problems. Proc. GECCO Comp. 2014, pages 59-60.


W. O. Krawec. Semi-Quantum Key Distribution: Protocols, Security Analysis, and New Models. Ph.D. Thesis, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken NJ, May 2015. (PDF | Slides)

W. O. Krawec. Analyzing n-Player Impartial Games. MA Thesis, University at Albany (SUNY), Albany NY, May 2010.



W. O. Krawec. Security in the Semi-Quantum Setting. AMS/MAA Joint Math Meetings, San Antonio TX (2015).

Select Magazine Articles

Evolutionary Robotics (Parts I and II). Circuit Cellar Ink. November-December, 2015

Experiments in Developmental Robotics (Parts I and II). Circuit Cellar Ink. September-October, 2013

Creating an HC11 OS. Dr. Dobbs Journal. December 2008

Programming the Pocket PC. Nuts and Volts Magazine. June 2006

Palm Programming: An Introduction. Nuts and Volts Magazine. October 2004

An HC11 File Manager. Circuit Cellar Online. April-May 2001


W.O. Krawec. Simulating Quantum Algorithms with Q-Prog. Available online: PDF
M. Daven and W.O. Krawec. Three-legged Spiders with Even Edge Count are Harmonious